Raw & temp. data (1)

Chaqalaq Tepe, Qunduz (Bactria)
The Japanese team from the university of Kyoto discovered a monastery and a broken stupa, fortified by two high walls, in the village of Chaqalaq Tepe, 11 km south of Qunduz. A few pieces made of stone and terracotta, together with glass and coins, were taken to the Kabul Museum.
T. Higuchi and S. Kuwayama, 1970.
Src: Tissot (2006)
Input by: tmciolek, Aug 01, 2014
Karracha (Kapisa province)
The monastery of Karracha is situated on the same Kuh-i Pahlawan hill as Shotorak. Several other Buddhist settlements in the same area are also studied below.
P. Cambon, 1996a, AA, pp. 13 28.
B. Dagens, M. Le Berre and D. Schlumberger, 1964, MDAFA, XIX, p. 35.
Src: Tissot (2006)
Input by: tmciolek, Aug 01, 2014
Tepe Kalan of Kuh-i Pahlawan (Kapisa province)
This monastery, situated in the vicinity of Shotorak and Karracha, was the last to be excavated by Joseph hackin and Jean Carl before they left for london in 1940 at the start of the Second World War. All information about this site (except a few notes and a list) has been lost. The sculptures and other finds are in the Kabul Museum.
P. Cambon, 1996a, AA, pp. 13–28.
B. Dagens, M. Le Berre and D. Schlumberger, 1964, MDAFA, XIX, p. 35.
Src: Tissot (2006)
Input by: tmciolek, Aug 01, 2014
Qul-i nadir (Parvan province)
The ruins of a monastery and a stupa of Qul-i Nadir were found in 1939 on a mountain path along the Kuh-i Pahlawan range, beyond Shotorak. The site was excavated by Jacques Meunié. A few photographs show details of statues in very bad condition. The discovery of a complete reliquary (now well known) provided an important addition to our knowledge of the Buddhist period in this region.
J. Meunié, 1959, MDAFA, VIII, pp. 115–27.
Src: Tissot (2006)
Input by: tmciolek, Aug 01, 2014
Tagao (Parvan province)
In the 1930s Alfred foucher had already traced the remains of a hindu temple and a Buddhist monastery on the private land of Qala-i Amir Muhammad in the village of Tagao, situated in the eastern region of Kapisa, on the road to Sarobi and on the left bank of the Panjshir river. In 1960 the german expert Klaus fisher found a broken marble statue of the hindu goddess Durga from the Turki Shahi period (eighth to ninth century ad).
K. Fisher, 1964, AA, X, 1, pp. 35 42.
A. Foucher, 1942 47, MDAFA, I, p. 149.
S. Kuwayama, 1976, EW, 26, 3/4, pp. 375 407.
Src: Tissot (2006)
Input by: tmciolek, Aug 01, 2014
Chaghan Sarai (Kunar province)
The village of Chaghan Sarai is situated at the confluence of the rivers Pech and Kunar and was known as early as the nineteenth century. A temple from the hindu Shahi period and a Buddhist monastery stood 3 km north of the site of Mangir Sar.
K. Edelberg, 1957, AA, 4, pp. 199 207.
K. Fisher, 1960, Afgh., 15, 3, pp. 7 10.
Z. Tarzi, 1999 2000, SRAA, 6, pp. 83 96.
J. E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw, 1959, OrA, n.s. 5, pp. 61 69.
Src: Tissot (2006)
Input by: tmciolek, Aug 01, 2014
"Temple Yong Tai Si
The earliest nun in the Chinese Buddhist history is considered to be Apan, which lived in Luoyang during the Dong (Eastern Han) dynasty. After her, more and more women became dedicated nuns. Even though their number was not as great as the number of the monks, it was a considerable one.

During the Jin dynasty (313 - 316), nun Jingjian built the Zhuilin Temple at the west side of Luoyang. This temple is considered one of the first nunneries in the Chinese Buddhist history. A couple of nunneries that were built were the beginning of a series of construction of more nunneries for the nuns to live and fulfill their destiny. Temples in Luoyang, Nanjing, at Wutaishan Mountain, at Emeishan Mountain and at Jiu Huashan Mountain.

During the timeline of the Chinese Buddhist history many temples experienced the rise and the decline. Lots of temples were destroyed like the Zhulin Temple. Temples had to change so that monks and nuns could live in as the Yanming Temple in Jiaxian County. The Yongtai Temple is the only one that was from the very beginning up to today a place for nuns and had never changed to something different. That is why the Yongtai Temple is considered the earliest reserving nunnery in Chine.
"[It] be taken to be true, the message of the Buddha reached the eastern part of Afghanistan even during the life-time of the Buddha. We have found the skull relics of the Buddha from Hadda and his tooth relics from Dauranta. Both these places are near Jelalabad. Fai-hien and Sung Yun also witnessed the skull relics of the Buddha and worshipped them." - http://thanhsiang.org/en/early-buddhism-afghanistan

x Allahnazar monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Caves and Stupa Mounds Upasak (1990)
x Ashok Boorjee monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF or Tapa Ashrak
x Barabad (or Baharabad) monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Stupa Upasak (1990)
X Baswal monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Cave-Complex Upasak (1990)
X Bimran monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF
Dauranta monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF

Daruntah, Afghanistan Page
Other names: درونته,Darūntah,Darunta,Ḏaṟūnta
World:Afghanistan:Velayat-e Nangarhar
Latitude 34.4789 Longitude 70.3622 http://www.fallingrain.com/world/AF/18/Daruntah.html

x Deh-Rahman monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Stupa Upasak (1990)
x Kajitulu monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Caves Upasak (1990)
x Khugyani monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Upasak (1990)
x Khwaja Lahoree monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Stupa Upasak (1990)
x Kotpur monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF
Nandara monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Upasak (1990)
Nandarkheyl, Afghanistan Page
Other names: Nandārkheyl,Nandarkheyl',Nandarkheyl’,Nanḏāṟkhēl,نندار خيل,Nandarkhel
World:Afghanistan:Velayat-e Nangarhar
Latitude 34.2064 Longitude 70.0347 http://www.fallingrain.com/world/AF/18/Nandarkheyl.html

x Passani monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Upasak (1990)
x Philakhana monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF -Stupa or Gudara monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Stupa
x Siah-Koh monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Caves Upasak (1990)
Sultanpur monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Stupa

Surkh Tope monastery, (near) Jalalabad, xxx, AF Upasak (1990)
"Southern Thailand[edit]
Below the Isthmus of Kra was the place of Malay civilizations. Primordial Malay kingdoms are described as tributaries to Funan by 2nd-century Chinese sources – though most of them proved to be tribal organizations instead of full-fledged kingdoms.[7] From the 6th century onwards, two major mandalas ruled Southern Thailand – the Kanduli and the Langkasuka. Kanduli centered on what is now Surat Thani Province and Langasuka on Pattani. Southern Thailand was the center of Hinduism and Mahayana. The Tang dynasty monk I Ching stopped at Langkasuka to study Pali grammar and Mahayana during his journey to India around 800 AD. At that time, the kingdoms of Southern Thailand quickly fell under the influences of the Malay kingdom of Srivijaya from Sumatra." - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Thailand#Ancient_civilizations

multi-lingual names of Buddhist monks & their dates - http://buddhistinformatics.ddbc.edu.tw/dmcb/TRANSFORMING_CONSCIOUSNESS-Chronology_of_Important_Dates
Chin, Constance Powell. 2012. Geography and Social Structure of Monasteries:
Cultural Diffusion or Convergent Evolution? MA Thesis, Dept. of History, San José State University.


Buddhismen und Höhle
Traces Tibétaines Monastères
Buddhism of Bāmiyān
Meiji YAMADA 109 - 122. Pacific World Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies, Third Series Number 4, Fall 2002, pp 109-122.

Hidden Realms and Pure Abodes: Central Asian Buddhism as
Frontier Religion in the Literature of India, Nepal, and Tibet
Ronald M. DAVIDSON 153 - 182
Pacific World Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies, Third Series Number 4, Fall 2002, pp 153-182.

KUDARA, Kôgi. 2002. The Buddhist Culture of the Old Uigur Peoples. Pacific World Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies, Third Series Number 4, Fall 2002, pp 183-195. [http://www.shin-ibs.edu/documents/pwj3-4/09KD4.pdf]

Chigi 智沮 Ch. Chih-i (538-597), Master of the T’ien-t’ai School [Jpn Tendai - tmciolek].
In 560, he went to Mt. Ta-su 大蘇山 (Daisozan) and met Hui-ssu 慧思 (Eji), under whose guidance he diligently practiced the Way and finally attained the ‘Dharma-Lotus Samadhi’ (Hokke-zanmai). Later he went to Mt. T’ien-t’ai in Chechiang Province (浙江省 Sekkosho, Zhejiangsheng), where he built a temple called Hsiu-ch’an 修禅 (Shuzen). By imperial order, he went to Chin-ling 金陵 (Kinryo) to give a series of lectures on the Lotus Sutra, the Benevolent King Prajnaparamita Sutra (Ninno-hannyakyo), the Perfection of Wisdom Discourse (Chidoron), etc. His lectures on the Lotus Sutra and his discourse on Mahayana meditation delivered at the Yu-ch’uan Temple 玉泉寺 (Gyokusenji) were later edited by his disciples, and became the fundamental texts of the T’ien-t’ai School.

T'ien-t'ai [天台] (538–597) (PY Tiantai; Jpn Tendai)
Also known as Chih-i. The founder of the T'ient'ai school in China, commonly referred to as the Great Teacher T'ient'ai or the Great Teacher Chihche (Chihche meaning "person of wisdom"). The name T'ient'ai was taken from Mount T'ient'ai where he lived, and this, too, became the name of the Buddhist school he effectively founded. […] He lost both parents soon thereafter and in 555 entered the Buddhist priesthood under Fa-hsy at Kuo-yüan-ssu temple. He then went to Mount Ta-hsien where he studied the Lotus Sutra and its related scriptures. In 560 he visited Nan-yüeh (also known as Hui-ssu) on Mount Ta-su to study under him, and as a result of intense practice, he is said to have attained an awakening through the "Medicine King" (twenty-third) chapter of the Lotus Sutra. This awakening is referred to as the "enlightenment on Mount Ta-su."
After seven years of practice under Nan-yüeh, T'ient'ai left the mountain and made his way to Chin-ling, the capital of the Ch'en dynasty, where he lived at the temple Wa-kuan-ssu and lectured for eight years on the Lotus Sutra and other texts. His fame spread, and he attracted many followers.

Aware that the number of his disciples who were obtaining insight was decreasing, however, and, in order to further his understanding and practice, he retired to Mount T'ient'ai in 575. Thereafter, at the emperor's repeated request, he lectured on The Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom and the Benevolent Kings Sutra at the imperial court in Chin-ling. In 587, at Kuang-che-ssu temple in Chin-ling, he gave lectures on the Lotus Sutra that were later compiled as The Words and Phrases of the Lotus Sutra. After the downfall of the Ch'en dynasty, he returned to his native Ching-chou and there expounded teachings that were set down as The Profound Meaning of the Lotus Sutra in 593 and Great Concentration and Insight in 594 at Yü-ch'yan-ssu temple. The three works mentioned above were all compiled by his disciple Chang-an and became the three major texts of the T'ient'ai school. He then returned to Mount T'ient'ai, where he died. […]
(The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism) http://www.sgilibrary.org/search_dict.php?id=2399

Chirei 知礼 Ch. Chih-li; Ssu-ming Chih-li 四明知礼 (Shimei Chirei); 960-1028; the seventeenth patriarch of the T’ien-t’ai school; the most distinguished T’ien-t’ai monk in the Sung dynasty, celebrated as the one who revived the T’ien-t’ai school. […] In 991 he was given the Ch’ien-fu Temple 乾符寺 (Kenfuji), where he taught students of T’ien-t’ai. Later, he moved to the Yen-ch’ing Temple 延慶寺 (Enkeiji) […]

Dosen 道宣 Ch. Tao-hsuan (596-667); the founder of the Nanshan 南山 (Nanzan) sect of the Vinaya (Lu 律, Ritsu) school in China. He assisted Hsuan-tsang 玄弉 (Genjo) in translating volumes of precept texts and biographies of monks. As he lived in his earlier days at a temple on Mt. Chung-nan 終南 (Shunan), he was popularly called Precept Master Nan-shan 南山律師 (Nanzan Risshi) or Great Master Nan-shan 南山大師 (Nanzan Daishi). 

Eimin Enju 永明延寿 Ch. Yung-ming Yen-shou; 904-975 or 976; a Ch’an monk who flourished about the end of the Five Dynasties period (907-959); he advocated the joint practice of Ch’an meditation and nembutsu. […] He thus became the third patriarch in the line of Fa-yen 法眼 (Hogen) (885-958). […] First he lived on Mt. Hsueh-tou 雪竇 (Setcho), and later at Ling-yin Temple 霊隠寺 (Reiinji), and finally at Yung-ming Temple 永明寺 (Eiminji) on Mt. Nan-p’ing 南屏山 in Hang-chou.

In 839, Ennin boarded a ship to return to Japan but, because of an unfavorable wind, he had to remain in China. He then went to Mt. Wu-t’ai 五台山 (Godaisan) in Shan-tung Province (山東省 Santosho, Shangdongsheng), the mountain which was held sacred because Manjusri, Samantabhadra, Avalokitesvara and Ksitigarbha were believed to dwell there. There he received Tendai scriptures and presumably learnt Fa-chao’s (法照 Hossho) Nembutsu Liturgy in Five Movements (Goe-hojisan 五会法事讃). After that he went to Ch’ang-an and, during his stay there for six years, learnt more of esoteric Buddhism. He returned home in 848

Genjo 玄奘 Ch. Hsuan-tsang (600 or 602-664); popularly known as Sanzo Hosshi 三蔵法師 (Tripitaka Master). Born in Honan Province (河南省 Kanansho, Henansheng) as the youngest of the four sons of Ch’en Hui 陳慧 (Chin E), he was exceptionally intelligent and an avid reader of classical literature. When he was eleven, he followed his brother Ch’ang-chieh 長捷 (Chosho) who was a Buddhist monk to the Ching-t’u Temple 浄土寺 (Jodoji) in Lo-yang to learn chanting and study sutras. In 614, when imperial permission for ordaining twenty-seven people was issued in Lo-yang, Hsuan-tsang, though still very young, impressed the examiner with his intelligence and so was able to receive ordination. He stayed at the Ching-t’u Temple and attended lectures on the Nirvana Sutra and the Mahayana-samgraha (Shodaijoron). On his brother’s advice, he left Lo-yang and went to Ch’ang-an where he stayed at the Chuang-yen Temple 荘厳寺 (Shogonji). […]
he visited eminent masters at various places before returning to Ch’ang-an in 623. Staying at the Ta-chueh Temple 大覚寺 (Daikakuji), he studied the Abhidharma-kosa (Kusharon) under Tao-yueh 道岳 (Dogaku) [… on his return from India he stayed at] the Hung-fu Temple 弘福寺 (Kofukuji) in Ch’ang-an, [where] he began preparations for translation of Buddhist texts.

Hishaku 飛錫 Ch. Fei-hsi (8th century); a Zen master and a contemporary of Fa-chiao 法照; Fei-hsi first studied the Vinaya precepts and later practiced the T’ien-t’ai method of contemplating the Triple Truth in the One Mind. He often stayed at a temple on Mt. Chung-nan 終南山, and from 744 on, regularly practiced the Lotus samadhi at Ch’ang-an 長安 in spring and autumn every year.

Hossho 法照 Chin. Fa-chao (8th century). Renowned as an incarnation of Shan-tao (go-Zendo 後善導), Fa-chao made a great contribution to the development of the nembutsu teaching. He first went to Mt. Lu, where he practiced meditation. One day, while in samadhi, he went to the Pure Land and saw a Chinese monk sitting beside Amida. Fa-chao was told that the monk was Chao-yuan 承遠 (Shoon) of Mt. Nan-yueh 南嶽 (Nangaku), a noted Pure Land master dedicated to the Pratyutpanna Samadhi (Hanju-zanmai). […] In 769, led by an inspiration, Fa-chao left Mt. Nan-yueh and went to Mt. Wu-t’ai 五台 where, in meditation, he received the nembutsu teaching from Manjusri and Samantabhadra. He built the Bamboo Forest Temple (竹林寺 Chikurinji) on Mt. Wu-t’ai to make it a center for the nembutsu samadhi.

Jinshu 神秀 Shen-hsiu ( -706); a native of K’ai-feng 開封 (Kaifu), he first studied Confucianism; after becoming a monk, he visited various places to study Buddhism. At fifty, he became a disciple of Hung-jen 弘忍 (Konin), and six years later, the head of the assembly of 500 monks. After the master’s death, he continued his practice of Zen for more than 10 years, and then was appointed abbot of the Yu-ch’uan Temple 玉泉寺 (Gyokusenji) on Mt. Tang-yang 当陽山 (Toyozan) at Chiang-ling 江陵 (Koryo)in Hu-pei Province (湖北省 Kohokusho, Hubeisheng).

Joyoji Eon 浄影寺慧遠 Chin. Hui-yuan of Ching-ying Temple; 523-592; born in Tun-huang, he began his study of Buddhism at an early age, […] Following the establishment of the Sui 隋 dynasty, he was invited to Ch’ang-an (Choan), where the Emperor Wen 文帝 (Buntei) built a temple for him, which was named Ching-ying ssu 浄影寺 (Joyoji). Since Hui-yuan was engaged in study and literary activity while living in that temple, he was known as Master Ching-ying 浄影法師 (Joyo hosshi).

Traces of Zen Patriarchs - Zen Temples at a glance
1. Shaolin (1st Patriarch Temple)
2. Erzu (2nd Patriarch Temple)
3. Sanzu (3rd Patriarch Temple)
4. Sizu (4th Patriarch Temple)
5. Wuzu (5th Patriarch Temple)
6. Nanhua (6th Patriarch Temple)

See also, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Buddhist_monasteries_in_China

North of the Yellow River, there stand many ancient Buddhist monasteries and pagodas. Many have actually been dated to the Liao dynasty, and among these the most famous are the Dajue Monastery 大觉寺, Jietai Monastery 戒台寺 and Tianning Monastery Pagoda 天宁寺塔 in Beijing; the Duobaofo Pagoda 多宝佛塔 in Liangxiang 良乡; the Northern Pagoda of the Yunju Monastery 云居寺北塔 in Fangshan 房山; the Daming Pagoda 大明塔 in Ningcheng county 宁城县 of Inner Mongolia; the Pagoda at Guangji Monastery 广济寺塔 in Jinzhou 锦州, Liaoning; the Twin Pagodas of Chongxing Monastery 崇兴寺双塔 at Beizhen 北镇; the Southern Pagoda 南塔 in Chaoyang 朝阳; the Liao Pagoda at Nongan 农安辽塔 in Jilin; the Huayan Monastery 华严寺 and the Liao Pagoda of Jueshan Monastery 觉山寺 in Datong, Shanxi… the list goes on.

Some of these were first built in the Liao dynasty, others were rebuilt. All have remained standing for nearly a thousand years. But the most magnificent of them all must be the Daxiong Hall 大雄宝殿 in the Fengguo Monastery 奉国寺 at Yi county 义县 in Liaoning; the Guanyin Chamber 观音阁 in the Dule Monastery 独乐寺 in Ji county 蓟县, Tianjin; and the Sakyamuni Pagoda 释迦塔 in the Fogong Monastery 佛宫寺 in Ying county 应县, Shanxi.

Chaganian - San'at (2002a) (a principality to the south ot Samarkand)
The possession of Chiojan'n (the Chaganian of the Arabo-Persian authors) occupied the middle and upper course of Surkhan-darja and its capital is identified at the ruins Budrach, 6 km from Denau - Zejmal and Rtveladze (1999)

Denow, Tajikistan Page
Other names: Denau
World:Tajikistan:(( Kulyabskaya Oblast' ))
Lat 38.2667 Long 67.9000

Shuman - San'at (2002a) - If we are to accept the identification of the capital of Holumo-Akharan with the ruins Uzbekontepe, which is 3 km away from Pakhtaabad in the district of Regar and has a thick early medieval layer, then the capital of the possession of Shuman'-Shuman (to the east of Akharan) must have been either the Hissar fortress or the ruins at Dushanbe - Zejmal and Rtveladze (1999)

Dushanbe, Tajikistan Page
World:Tajikistan:(( Kulyabskaya Oblast' ))
Lat 38.6461 Long 68.7692

Hisor, Tajikistan Page
Other names: Gissar,Staryy Gissar,Khisor
World:Tajikistan:(( Kulyabskaya Oblast' ))
Lat 38.5247 Long 68.5514

Khavamaran - San'at (2002a)
Kobadian - San'at (2002a)

"Works 'in the style of Gandhar art' found by [… A.N. Bernshtam - tmc] and remains of architecture with sculpture and painting in a number of sites or ancient settlements of the Chui valley including Ak-Beshim, Krasnaya Rechka [Navekat - tmc], Karadjygach, Novopavlovka, Sokuluk, etc., helped indicate main contours of historical-cultural relationship of Tien-Shen, Eastern Turkestan and India since first centuries A.D. up to XII c. inclusive." - Goryacheva (n.d.)

Karadzhigach, Kyrgyzstan Page
Other names: Kara-Dzhegach
Lat 40.1333 Long 72.0833

Karadzhigach, Kyrgyzstan Page - a more likely site
Lat 41.1333 Long 72.3833

Karadjygach - Goryacheva (n.d.)

Novopavlovka, Kyrgyzstan Page
World:Kyrgyzstan:Gorod Bishkek
Lat 42.8706 Long 74.4867

Novopavlovka - Goryacheva (n.d.)
Sokuluk, Kyrgyzstan Page
Other names: Kaganovich,Novo-Troitskoye
Lat 42.8667 Long 74.3000

Sokuluk - Goryacheva (n.d.)


Src: http://www.numerals.de/Art/Pagodas/pagodas.html
The most important Buddhist monasteries of China are:

Gansu Province:
the capital Lanzhou 蘭州 only possesses a white pagoda (Baita 白塔)

a Tibetian Lama monastery is near the city Labrang 拉卜楞 (chin. Xiahe 夏河)
near Zhangyi 張掖, we find the Matisi Grottoes 馬蹄寺石窟. The city itself is famous for Dafo Monastery 大佛寺 (Song) with the large, 30 m long reclining Buddha, and a timber pagoda (Muta 木塔)

Guangdong Province:
Kaiyuan Monastery 開元寺 in Chaozhou 潮州
the city of Foshan 佛山 can show a red octogonal pagoda called Renshouta 仁壽塔
the capital Guangzhou (Canton) 廣州 is known for the following monasteries: Guangxiao 光孝寺 (Jin) with two small iron pagodas, Liurong Monastery 六榕寺 (Sui to Tang) with the Huata Pagoda 華塔, Hualin Monastery 華林寺 with the hall of 500 Arhats. South of Guangzhou, we find the Zhenshan Baota Pagoda 真山寶塔 in Xinhui 新會, and a pagoda in Shunde 順德.

Hebei Province:
near the capital Shijiazhuang 石家莊 is Fuqing Monastery (Sui) in a wonderful landscape. Near Zhengding, we find the Longxing Monastery 隆興寺 (also Sui), and a Pilusi Monastery 毗盧寺.

Henan Province:
Kaifeng 開封 was Northern Song capital and therefore has to show many monasteries, like the Iron Pagoda (Tieta 鐵塔), the Fanta Pagoda 繁塔 (once 70 m tall), and Xiangguo Monastery 相國寺
Luoyang 洛陽, also capital for many dynasties, is known for three places of Buddhism: the Baima Monastery 白馬寺, China's first monastery, Fengxian Monastery 奉先寺 inside the Longmen Grottoes 龍門石窟, and the Shaolin Monastery 少林寺, known for the fighting technique of its monks

Hubei Province:
The capital Wuhan 武漢 is an industrial city, but we can find here some monasteries, like the Guiyuan Monastery 歸元寺 with a 500 Arhats Hall, Baotong Monastery 寶通寺 with the Xingfuta Pagoda 興福塔 and Hongshan Baota Pagoda 洪山寶塔 (all Song).

Hunan Province:
The capital Changsha 長沙 can show us Kaifu Monastery 開福寺 (Tang).

Jiangsu Province:
Tianning Monastery 天寧寺 (Tang) in Changzhou 常州.
The old city of Suzhou 蘇州 is not only famous for the gardens, but also for pagodas (Beisita 北寺塔, Shuangta 雙塔, Ruiguangta 瑞光塔) and monasteries (Hanshansi 寒山寺, Lingyansi 靈岩寺, Baoshengsi 保聖寺).
揚州 Yangzhou was once a rich city of merchandise and therefore has many pagodas and monasteries, among them Tianning 天寧寺 and Daming Monasteries 大明寺, and Wenfengta Pagoda 文奉塔 and a Stone Pagoda (Shita 石塔).
Jinshansi Monastery (Jin) 金山寺 in Zhenjiang 鎮江.

Shanxi Province:
Datong 大同 was once capital of the Northern Wei Dynasty and is crowned with many monasteries, like Shenhua 善化寺 and Huayan 華嚴寺 Monasteries. Near Datong are the famous Yungang Grottoes 雲岡石窟.
Guangsheng Monastery 廣勝寺 (Jin to Yuan) in the rather unknown town Hongdong 洪洞.
The capital Taiyuan 太原 houses the Double Pagoda (Shuangta 雙塔; Tang). Nearby are Longshan Grottoes 龍山石窟 (not the big famous Longshan!) and Tianlongshan 天龍山石窟 Grottoes.
Tianning Monastery 天寧寺 (Tang) on Guashan Mountain 卦山.
Xuanzhong Monastery 玄中寺 (Tang) near Jiaocheng 交城.
Wutaishan Mountain 五台山 is one of the sacred Buddhist mountains with many temples and pagodas.

Shandong Province:
Near the capital Jinan 濟南 is the Thousand Buddha Mountain Qianfoshan 千佛山 with the Xingguo Monastery 興國寺 (Tang).

Shaanxi Province:
Xi'an 西安 (former Chang'an 長安) was capital for many rulers and dynasties.
Other monasteries are: Qinglongsi ; near the city are Xingjiaosi 興,教寺, Huayansi 華嚴寺, Xiangjisi and Caotangsi Monasteries.
Yan'an 延安 is not only the city where the Communist Party leaders camped during the civil war, but is also known for a Song Dynasty pagoda Yananta 延安塔.

Sichuan Province:
The capital Chengdu 成都 is home for three monasteries: Dacisi 大慈寺 (Tang), Zhaojuesi 昭覺寺 (Tang), and Baoguangsi 寶光寺 (Jin).
Near the city of Dazu 大足, we find two places of Buddhist grottoes: the Beishan Grottoes 北山石窟, and the Baodingshan Grottoes 寶頂山石窟.
Probably the most famous Buddhist mountain is Emeishan 峨眉山 with many monasteries, statues and steles.
The huge stone Buddha statue (Dafo 大佛) of Leshan Mountain 樂山 was carved during the Tang Dynasty.
Yunnan Province:

Zhejiang Province:
The silk city of Hangzhou 杭州is home of some monasteries, like the Lingyinsi Monastery 靈隱寺 with the large Maitreya potbelly Buddha; further, the Song Dynasty Liuheta Pagoda 六和塔.
Ningbo 寧波 is home of Tianfengta Pagoda 天封塔 (Tang), and the monasteries Baoguosi 保國寺 (Song), Tiantongsi 天童寺 (Tang), and Ayuwang Monastery 阿育王寺.
The island Putuoshan 普陀山 is one of the sacred Buddhist mountains. The Bodhisattva Guanyin is the main object of reverence on this island.
Dashan Monstery 大善寺 (Song Dynasty) in Shaoxing 紹興.
The Tiantai school was founded in the monasteries of Mount Tiantai 天台山.

Autonomous Region of Tibet:
Palkhor Monastery (Chinese: Baijusi 白居寺) in Gyangze (Chinese: Jiangzi 江孜)
Yumbulhakhang Monasteriy (chin. Changzhusi 昌珠寺) in Zedang 澤當

Autonomous Region of Inner Mongolia:
Kundulun 昆都侖召 and Wudang Monasteries 五當召 (resembling the Potala) in Baotou 包頭
Wuta Monastery 五塔寺 and and Lama Temple Dazhao 大召 in Hohhot (chin. Huhehaote 呼和浩特). Nearby the White Pagoda (Baita 白塔) and the Huayan Pagoda 華嚴經塔.

Buddhism and Its Spread Along the Silk Road

"We learn that by the 7th century all the small kingdoms of the Tarim region had been entirely won over to Buddhism, which brought with it so much of Indian culture that Sanskrit had become the religious language. As Buddhism advanced towards the Tarim basin, Kashgaria with Yarkand and Khotan in the west, Tumsuk, Aksu and Kizil in the north, Loulan, Karasahr and Dunhuang in the east, and Miran and Cherchen in the south became important centers of Buddhist art and thought. The Buddhist texts were translated from Sanskrit into various local Indo-European dialects such as Tocharian or Kuchean.
By 658 Kucha developed to be a leading center of Hinayana Buddhism and the paintings were found at the cave temples of Kizil (near Kucha) (Figure on the right: Goddess and Celestial Musician, Wall-painting at Kizil cave. 600-605 AD) dated from the 1st to 8th centuries. The early art form in the Tarim area were strongly Indo-Persian in style, but Persian elements were gradually overlaid by the Chinese in the 6th century after Tang's power dominated the Tarim basin.
It is impossible to make any general rules about the precise schools of Buddhism that flourished in the Tarim basin, but the early pilgrims who traveled there gave some clues. Fa-hsien and Xuan Zang appeared to indicate that most of the kingdoms such as Kashgar, Kizil, Karashahr and Kucha on the northern route followed the Hinayana Vehicle whereas Mahayana flourished along the southern route including the kingdoms of Khotan and Yarkand."

300s Buddhist settlements at Hadda, Afghanistan. Destroyed by the Hephthalites in 450.

450-750 Buddhist caves started in Kizil, Xinjiang

450-494 Yunkang cave temples
Nan-hua Monastery at T'sao Chi (Cao-xi), Gauangdong Province.

The spread of Buddhism in Sputheast Asia


Pattani is still called Pattani. While Ligor, which was previously called Tambralingga, is now called Nakhon Si Thammarat, which is the Thai rendition of Nagara Sri Dharmaraja, the new name given to it when it was first conquered by or submitted to Khmer Funan-Chenla hegemony.

Other important Mon centers were Ligor in Thailand (modern Nakhon Si Thammarat) and Thaton in lower Burma. Ligor was also known as Tambralinga.
There was an early Burmese kingdom called Linyang, capital Srikshetra, near today's Prome, whose likely dates are 670 to 830. It was peopled by Pyu, who were culturally influenced by the Mons. The Mons had control of the Irrawaddy delta and Thailand. In the 9th century they founded Pegu, near modern Yangon (Rangoon).

"Inscriptions also indicated an expedition in 686 against Java and a Sanskrit inscription in Ligor shows that by 775 Sri Vijaya had a footing in northern Malaya, having conquered Kedah and a large part of the west coast. It mentions a king entitled Sri Maharaja, a descendant of the Sailendra family and described as the "destroyer of his enemies". The Sailendras, or Kings of the Mountain, were originally rulers of the Cambodian Funan Empire, who became kings of Middle Java and become famous as the builders of Borobudur. Their descendants were to rule not only Palembang but Kedah (known variously as Kataha, and Kadaram).

In the world of commerce, Sri Vijaya, now called Sanfo-ts'i by the Chinese and Zabag or Sribuza by the Arabs, rapidly rose to be a far-flung empire controlling the two passages between India and China, namely the Sunda Straits from Palembang and the Malacca Straits from Kedah. Arab accounts state that the empire of the Maharaja was so large that in two years the swiftest vessel could not travel round all its islands, which produced camphor, aloes, cloves, sandal-wood, nutmegs, cardamom and cubebs, ivory, gold and tin, making the Maharaja as rich as any king in the Indies. In 990 A.D. Java appears to have attacked Sri Vijaya, which asked for China's protection. In 1006 Sri Vijaya seems to have burnt the capital of its Javanese enemy and slain the king and many of his chiefs.

A year before that, Chulamanivarmadeva, described in inscriptions as "the king of Kataha (Kedah) and Srivishaya", built a Buddhist temple at Negapatam, which the Chola King Rajaraja I supported with the revenue of a large village. Sri Vijayan relics have been found in various parts of Kedah and Perak. Chinese maps put Sri Vijaya right in the middle of the Malay Peninsula. Even Portuguese histories of I5I2 tells how Kedah in the middle of the fifteenth century still claimed tribute from Perak, Manjong, Bemam, Selangor and Malacca, obviously as heir to "Kataha." For six hundred years or more Kedah became an important port of call for Chola-mandala (Coromandel)."

"Huayan Monastery is located in the southwestern part of Datong. These splendid ancient buildings were constructed of wood during the Liao Dynast more than nine hundred years ago. This "great monastery of the Liao Dynasty," as it was called, was almost completely destroyed in wars, but the remaining main hall is one of the largest Buddhist temples dating from the Liao and Kin dynasties (1,559 square meters). At the sides of the hall stand thirty-two Devarajas (Heacenly Guardians), and in the middle are three wooden Buddhist statues. Especially noteworthy is the hall of Boga Sect, which contains thirty-one fine statues sculptured in the Liao Dynasty."

Taiyuansi, China Page
Other names: T'ai-yuan-ssu,T'ai-yüan-ssu
World:China:Hunan Sheng
Lat 27.0536 Long 112.4025

[see also newsletters at the above adddress]

Andy Ferguson - andyfatsouthmountaintours.com

Oct 28: Arrive Shanghai
Oct 29: Morning visit to Bund. Jade Buddha Temple. Lunch. Coach to Ningbo. Overnight Ningbo.
Otc 30: Visit Tiantong, Ayuwang Temples. Dogen studied under Rujing at Tiantong Temple. Ayuwang Temple was the home of the cook Dogen met when he arrived in China. Overnight Ningbo.
Oct 31: Morning visit to Tian Yige Garden. Overland transport to Nanchang City. Overnight at Nanchang..
Nov 1: Morning coach to Baizhang Temple. This mountain monastery was the Dharma seat for Baizhang Huaihai (Hyakujo). It is the site where the koan "Baizhang's fox occurred, plus the place where the "pure precepts" for Chan monasteries was established. We will use this monastery as our base as we practice and explore other important sites in the area. Visit and practice at Baizhang. Overnight Baizhang.
Nov 2: Visit to Huangbo Temple. Huangbo, a towering figure in Chan history, wrote the historic text "Essentials of Mind." We will visit the new temple built on his ancient Dharma seat, plus visit his stupa. Overnight Baizhang
Nov 3: Visit Moshan and Dongshan. Moshan is perhaps the most famous of all women teachers in the Chan tradition. She taught on Mt. Jiufeng. Now a small nunnery and practice center exists where she once lived. After visiting Moshan's place we will visit the founding temple of the Caodong (Soto) Zen school on Mt. Dong. We'll also visit the Peng Ju Qiao (Meet it Bridge), the place where Dongshan gazed into the river, saw his reflection, and woke up. Overnight at Baizhang
Nov 4: Travel to visit Baofeng and Donglin Si. Baofeng is the site of Mazu Daoyi's principle Dharma seat. Here he expounded the famous doctrine that "Mind is Buddha," as well as its corollary, "No Mind, No Buddha." We then will proceed to the Fourth Chan Ancestor's temple (called Sizu). That place, where the "East Mountain School" of Chan was established, has great importance to Chinese Chan. We stay overnight at that monastery (Sizu).
Nov 5: Stay and practice at Sizu. Hike to visit nunnery on nearby mountain.
Nov: 6: Morning at Sizu. Afternoon trip to Fifth Ancestor's Temple, the place of the famous "poetry contest" between Huineng and Shenxiu. Return for overnight at Sizu.
Nov 7: Coach to Nanchang City. Flight from Nanchang to Zhengzhou City. Transfer to Dengfeng City near Shaolin Temple. Overnight at Dengfeng.
Nov 8: Shaolin Temple. Visit with the abbot Shi Yongxin. Visit the Bodhidharma cave. Overnight again at Dengfeng.
Nov 9: Coach to the Longmen Grottos, a world UNESCO site. Afternoon visit to White Horse Temple (Baima Si), the place where legend says Buddhism arrived in China. Proceed to Sanmenxia City. Evening banquet at Sanmenxia with Bodhidharma conference participants. Overnight at Sanmenxia.
Nov 10 Participate with Chinese Chan Buddhists at celebration of Bodhidharma's memorial at Empty Form Temple. Afternoon coach to Zhengzhou City. Night train to Shanghai.

Buddhist caves of Jaghuri and Qarabagh-e Ghazni, Afghanistan
Sale: 58.50EUR
Save: 10% off
Giovanni Verardi and Elio Paparatti; with an appendix by Minoru Inaba
Buddhist caves of Jaghuri and Qarabagh-e Ghazni, Afghanistan
Roma, 2004
Series: Reports and memoirs, New Series, II
Description: 118 p., [58] p. of pls. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: english
ISBN: 8885320228

Foreword (by Giovanni Verardi), p. 7
Transliterations and Transcriptions, p. 9
Maps, p. 11
2. THE CAVES, p. 19
    General Observations, p. 19
    The Caves to the East of Mount Dehbaday, p. 27
        1. Nay Qal‘a, p. 27 http://www.fallingrain.com/world/AF/08/Nayqalah.html
        2. Homay Qal‘a, p. 37 http://???
    The Caves of the Upper Arghandab Valley, p. 43
    The Caves along the Tayna Tangi/Darya-ye Gawargin, p. 43
        3. Tapa Sanawbar, p. 43 http://???
        4. Shah Khwaja, p. 47 http://www.fallingrain.com/world/AF/08/Shah_Khvajeh.html
        5. Ghar-e Shaki Noka, p. 47
        6. Gawargin, p. 49
        7. Koh-e El, p. 53
        8. Ghar-e Shah, p. 56
    The Caves along the Qol-e Kariz in the Nawaye Khodaydad, p. 61
        9. Sangdara, p. 62
        10. Tapa Hesar and Bala Khana, p. 65
        11. Bayak and Lala Khel, p. 68
    The Caves along the Darya-ye Alwada and beyond, p. 69
        12. Qarya-ye Baba Kamal, p. 70
        13. Tapa Zaytun, p. 73
        Excursus: Cave 2 at Haybak, p. 87
        14. Shotor Ghar and Top-e Ahangaran, p. 89
    To the West of Ghazni: The Archaeological Data, p. 91
    Caojuzha/Zabulistan and Jaghuri, p. 94
    Fulishisatangna/Wujiristan, p. 97
    The Buddhist Kingdom of Zabul, p. 97
    Buddhist and tirthikas, p. 100
APPENDIX: Nay Qal‘a, Wujiristan and the Khalaj (by Minoru Inaba), p. 105
References, p. 109
Index, p. 113
Plates, p. 119


Javanese candi list

Sutrenübersetzer (China)

"Charles Masson’s sketch of his excavated finds from the relic deposits of the Buddhist stupas Kotpur 2, Bimaran 2, Gudara, Deh Rahman 1 (“Tope Abbee”) and Passani tumulus 2 in the Darunta district, east of Jalalabad."

In: Nawabganj_District, BD
Naoda Stupa (Buddhist monument),

Buddhist sites in Andhra Pradesh
(incl. Bavikonda, Chandavaram, Dantapuram, Dharapalem, Dhulikatta, Dupadu, Erravaram, Adurru, Kesanapally , Gajulabanda, Gopalpatnam, Kotilingala, Majeru, Nandalur, Nelakondapalle (Khammam Dist.), Pavurallakonda, Peddabankur, Phanigiri, Thotlakonda)

Vajrayana Buddhism in Southeast Asia

"the famous 7th-century Chinese pilgrim Hsüan-tsang, who observed a large number of stupas in the Asokan style in the northwest, e.g., three at Taksáhila (Taxila), two in Uddiyana, five in Gandhara, three near Nagarahara (Jalalabad), dozens in Jaguda (near Qandahar), and even one at Kapisi (Begram)." - Emeric (n.d.)

Standing Bodhisattva - Pakistan, Gandhâra art, Shahbaz-Garhi
Kushan period (1st-3rd century)

See also
In China, the ancient imperial academy known as Taixue was established in Han Dynasty at 3 AD. It was intermittently inherited by later dynasties until Qing, in some of which the name was changed to Guozixue or Guozijian. Peking University (Imperial University of Peking) established in 1898 is regarded as the replacement of Taixue (or Guozijian). In Korea, Taehak was founded in 372 and Gukhak was established in 682. The Seonggyungwan was founded by the Joseon Dynasty in 1398 to offer prayers and memorials to Confucius and his disciples, and to promote the study of the Confucian canon. It was the successor to Gukjagam from the Goryeo Dynasty (AD 992). It was reopened as a private Western-style university in 1946. In Japan, Daigakuryo was founded in 671 and Ashikaga Gakko was founded in 9th century and restored in 1432. In Vietnam, the Quoc Tu Giam (國子監, literally "National University") functioned for more than 700 years, from 1076 to 1779.



"Uttararama - The Gal Vihara, or rock temple […], was originally named Uttararama (the northern monastery), in the city of Polonnaruwa, and according to the chronicle Chulavamsa was one of the more prominent of the 100 temples built throughout ancient Sri Lanka by King Parakramabahu I (1153 – 1186).[1] […]
By the time Parakramabahu I ascended to the throne, the Buddhist priesthood in the country was divided into three fraternities: Abhayagiri, Jetavana and Mahavihara. He held a congregation of monks to reconcile the three fraternities, and "purified the order" by expelling corrupt monks. With the help of the elders of each fraternity, he later drew up a katikavata (code of conduct) for Buddhist monks and recorded this in an inscription at Uttararama.[5] The area in front of the images, which now resembles a terrace, is believed to be the location of the assembly hall where this congregation was held.[1] […] The Uttararama was abandoned during the fall of the Polonnaruwa Kingdom. It had functioned as an educational establishment from its inception to its abandonment, being a centre of Buddhist education in the country.[6]"

"Hambugallaka. A monastery in Ceylon, where a Thera, named Tissa, versed in the Nikāyas, brought about reconciliation between Vattagāmani und his disaffected ministers. Mhv.xxxiii.71ff."

"Hankana-vihāra. A monastery in Ceylon, where lived an old Thera who believed himself to be an arahant. Dhammadinna of Talangara (q.v.) asked him to create an elephant und make it approach him. This he did, but was so scared at the sight that he knew his mistake regarding his attainment, und asked pardon of Dhammadinna. MA.i.150."

A nunnery built by Devānampiyatissa for the use of Sanghamittā. It was called Hatthālhaka because it was built near the spot where the König's [King's] state elephant was fettered. Sanghamittā's following came to be called Hatthalhakā from living in the vihāra.
Later, they occupied also all the twelve buildings attached to the Upāsikā-vihāra, even when other sects arose (Mhv.xix.71, 83; xx.21f, 49). The vihāra was originally within the city wall of Anurādhapura; but later, when Kutikanna-Tissa und Vasabha raised the boundary wall, part of the vihāra grounds lay outside. The original boundary included the Kadambanadī. MT. 611."

A monastery, erected by Gothābhaya on the spot where Sirisanghabodhi (q.v.) gave his head as a gift to a poor man. It was repaired by Parakkamabāhu II. Vijayabāhu III. was cremated near the vihāra, und Parakkamabāhu II. built there a cetiya und an octagonal image house which contained a stone image of the Buddha (Cv.lxxxv.73f). It is said that a König [King], named Upatissa, had built in the monastery a fünf storeyed pāsāda in honour of a monk who made the earth und sky resound mit thunder at the moment of his attainment of arahantship. Parakkamabāhu II. found it fallen into decay und had it restored in his name. His minister, Devappatirāja, erected, in the König's [King's] name, a three storeyed pāsāda, gave it to Anomadassī Thera, who was chief incumbent of the vihāra at that time, und set up a stone inscription to record the gift. Cv.lxxxvi.12f, 37f."

"Hatthibhoga. The district given for the maintenance of Ilanāga's state elephant, who saved the König [King] from the prison into which he was cast by the Lambakannas (Mhv.xxv.20f., 44). It was in the south of Ceylon und in the village was the Pangura-vihāra. MA.i.530."

"Hatthikkhandha-vihāra. A monastery built by Sūratissa to the east of Anurādhapura (Mhv.xxi.4) und near the village of Dvāramandala. MT. 424."
"[…] Dighabaya who was in charge of Kacchakatittha send Nimala on an errand to a Brahman named Kundali, who lived near the Cetiya mountain in the Dvaramandala village. Nimala marched the great distance of more than eighteen yojanas form Kacchakatittha to Dvaramandala, then from there to Anuradhapura to bath in the Tissa tank and back to his master the prince at Kacchakatittha […]"

"Hatthikucchi-vihāra. A monastery in Ceylon where Aggabodhi I. built a pāsāda, bearing the name of his Tochter [daughter] Dāthā (Cv.xlii.21). Aggabodhi VI. built there another pasāda (Cv.xlviii.65) which was restored by Aggabodhi IX. (Cv.xlix.76). It was evidently a famous vihāra. See, eg., Vsm.120."

"Heligāma 1. A village near Mahāgāma, gifted by König [King] Vasabha to the Anurārāma-vihāra. Mhv.xxxv.83."

"Hemasālī-vihāra. A monastery in Ceylon. In the time of Mahinda II. there was a Thera in the vihāra, expert in the Abhidhamma, und the König [King] had the Abhidhamma recited by him, und built a bathing tank for the Thera's use. Cv.xlviii.142."

"Hulapitthi-vihāra. A monastery in Ceylon, built by König [King] Mahāsena. v.l. Cūlavitthi. Mhv.xxxvii.43."

"Huvācakannikā. A district in Ceylon where Mahādathika-Mahānāga built the Cūlanāgapabbata-vihāra (Mhv.xxxiv.90). The district was in Rohana. MT. 637."

"Hadayunha-parivena. A monastery on Cetiyagiri, built by Sena Ilanga und given over to the Dhammarucikas. Cv.lii.18."


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