Puspagiri monastery, (towards) Cuttock, Orissa, IN

Raw data

"Puspagiri Mahavihara […] Puspagiri University was a prominent Buddhist seat of learning that flourished until the 11th century in India. Today, its ruins lie atop the Langudi hills, low hills about 90 km from the Mahanadi delta, in the districts of Jajpur and Cuttack in Orissa. […] Puspagiri ranks along with Nalanda and Takshila universities as one of the three primary institutions of higher learning in ancient India. The three universities were mentioned in the travelogues of the famous Chinese traveler Xuanzang (Huien Tsang), who visited it in 639 CE, as Puspagiri Mahavihara, as well as in medieval Tibetan texts"
Input by: tmciolek, 24 Jan 2009

"It is ninety KM from state capital Bhubaneswar, nesting on three hills, are the ruins of what must have once been an imposing Buddhist monastry complex called Puspagiri. In fact, it is yet another triangle which constitutes Lalitgiri, Ratnagiri and Udaigiri. Amidist the sylvan surroundings of Mahanadi basin, the triangle is supposed to have once constituted the most important seat of Buddhist learnings next only to Taxila and Nalanda.
Inaccesible and therefore, not much traveled, the area has tremendous archaeological significance. A tip to Puspagiri may involve wading through muddy terrain and a couple of boat trips across rivers like Kelua and Genguti, tributaries of the river Mahanadi. The Chinses traveler, Hiuen Tsang visited this area in 639 AD and refered to it as Pusi-po-kili in his travelogue which embraced all the above three Vihars of Lalitgiri, Ratnagiri and Udaigiri."
Input by: tmciolek, 11 Apr 2009

Cuttack, India Page
World:India:State of Orissa
Lat 20.5000 Long 85.8333
Input: tmciolek, 12 May 2009.

Close to Lalitgiri – Ratnagiri - Udayagiri complex is Langudi. Another important site of Buddhism. Recent excavations have unearthed a treasue trove of architecturally and sculpturally rich Buddhist Rmains. They include clusters of rock – cut votive stupas,two unique images of the Buddha and Pancha Dhyani Buddha with their female counterparts, brick cells and brick walls.
The most remarkable and prize discovery of this palce in 2001 are the two inscribed images of emperor Ashoka, one single and the other with his two queens."

"Langudi Hill : Langudi hill, which is situated nearby ancient Dantpura - the capital of Kalinga, is a unique collection of Buddhist remains such as monasteries, meditation centres and caves.
[…] The nearest railway station to Langudi is at Kesinga, at a distance of 35 kilometers, which lies on the south eastern rail head. As far as road route is concerned, Langudi can be reached either directly from Bhubaneshwar(90 km) and Cuttack(92 km) or from Jaraka and Chandikhol, the nearest towns from Langudi on the National Highway No. 5."

“The site is significant as the cultural sequence of the findings covers a period between the 1st century AD and 9th century AD and are indicative of the existence of a flourishing Buddhist monastic establishment,” the ASI superintendent told The Telegraph.
ASI officials said the exposed remains include a number of Buddhist rock-cut sculptures on the southern spur of the hill. The northern part has 34 rock-cut stupas of various sizes.
The most outstanding stupa, according to experts, is the gigantic central rock-cut one. Besides, there is an unsculptured monolithic rectangular pillar basement built on a stone verandah and the courtyard of a brick-built quadrangular monastery buried within a quadrangular brick mound and debris comprising burnt bricks.
The site also features sculptures of Dhyani Buddhas in various postures. Vajrayana Buddhist divinities like Tara and Prajnaparamita are also among the monuments lying scattered around the Langudi Hill.
Harish Chandra Prusty, a lecturer at a local college, first stumbled upon the site in 1995. He later wrote a book, Langudi: A unique Rock-cut Buddhist Site in Orissa, on the same.
Subsequently, the Orissa Institute of Maritime and South East Asia Studies, along with the state archaeology department, took up exploration at the Langudi Hill in 1996. Archaeologists believe that the heritage site holds the clue to the location of Pushpagiri, described in Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang’s account of Orissa as a centre of Buddhist monasticism and scholasticism."
Input by: tmciolek, Apr 11, 2009

Sangharama of Puse-po-kili (Pushpapura) (near) Mahakosala. Visited and described by Xuanzang. Src: Mukherjee (1981:14)

Input by: tmciolek, May 19, 2009

Final data (and their sources)

Last updated: 01 Apr 2013.

Lat/Long coordinates' accuracy:
The monastery in question is assumed to be situated actually no farther than 20 km from the point defined by the coordinates below.

Location of Puspagiri monastery, IN.

General location of the Puspagiri monastery, IN.
lat=20.616665 long=86.25833
Mapping & images: Falling Rain Genomics (http://www.fallingrain.com), 2009.

Google Map link:


Final data - explanatory notes

1. Monastery's name

  • Puspagiri monastery

2. Monastery's modern country & province

  • India:State of Orissa

3. Monastery's alternative/historical names

4. Monastery's lat/long coordinates

  • Approx., Lat 20.616665 Long 86.25833 [calculated as a half value between lat/long coords of Udayagiri (Exactly Lat 20.65 Long 86.26666 - Banyopadhya (2004:73,76-79)) & Lalitgiri (Exactly Lat 20.58333 Long 86.25 - Bandyopadhya (2004:37-42)) - tmc, 12 May 2009.

5. Other known nearby Buddhist monasteries

6. Modern name of the known nearest city, town, or village

7. The settlement's alternative/historical names

  • [missing data]

8. The settlement's coordinates

9. Monastery's major Buddhist tradition

  • [missing data]

10. Monastery's Buddhist sub-tradition

  • [missing data]

11. Date-early

  • [missing data]

12. Date-intermediate

  • MBM chrono-tag: 0600-32p 0633-66c - tmciolek 1 Apr 2013
  • 795 CE - A monk named Prajna [ven.prajna] was sent from Pushpagiri by Subhkara, the king of Orissa, to the Emperor of China (Te-Tsong). He delivered the last section of a text titled the Avatamska. See S. Levy, "King Subhakara of Orissa" Epigraphica Indica, XV, p. 363.
  • MBM chrono-tag: 0733-66c 0767-99c 0800-32p - tmciolek 1 Apr 2013
  • 0600-32p 0633-66c 0667-99c 0700-32c 0733-66c 0767-99c 0800-32p dated-xx

13. Date-late

  • [missing data]

14. Details of contacts with other monasteries

  • [missing data]

15. Type of evidence regarding the monastery

  • pilgrimage account

16. Additional notes

17. Corrections & addenda to this page were kindly provided by

  • [missing data]

end of page

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License