Xingguo-1 monastery, (in) Jinan, Shandong, CN

Raw data

"Xingguo Temple […] Address:  
on the half way of Thousand-Buddha Hill (Qianfo Shan), Jinan" -

"Cave south of the Xingguochan Temple
The Thousand-Buddha Cliff is located on the northern flank of the hill behind the Xingguochan Temple (s. below). The foot of the cliff is pierced by five caves, which are named (from west to east): Longquan (Dragon Spring) Cave, Jile (Extremely Happy) Cave, Qianlou (probably a person's name) Cave, and Luzhu (probably a person's name) Cave. The caves' height ranges from 3 meters down to only 20 centimeters. About 130 Buddha statues which were carved into Thousand-Buddha Cliff during the Sui period remain today. The Jile Cave houses 16 Buddha statues, the tallest of which is 3 m high.

Buddha statues in a cave south of the Xingguochan Temple
Along with the Buddha statues, temples and other buildings were erected on the hill. The most renown of these structures is the Xingguochan Temple (Chinese: 兴国禅寺; pinyin: Xing Guo Chan Si, literally: "Development of the Country Buddhist Temple") which was originally build during the reign of Emperor Taizhong of Tang as an expansion of the Sui-Dynasty Qianfo Temple. Further enlargements were undertaken during the Song Dynasty, but the temple was destroyed by war afterwards. Rebuilding was undertaken in 1468, during the Ming Dynasty. The Guanying Hall, the Foye Hall, and the Thousand-Hands Buddha statue were added during the Qing Dynasty.

East gate of Xingguochan Temple
The temple is located about half-way up the hill and can be reached via 300 stone steps. A large inscription (total area about 15 square meters) cut into the cliff face to the southwest of the identifies it as the "Number One Temple" (Di Yi Mi Hua). "

"The temple itself, named Xingguo Chan Temple (“Encouraging the Country Zen Temple”) is located about halfway up the hillside. There are several halls with some fine statues; the real attraction though is the small grottoes with statues carved into the native rock."

"The Xingguo Temple is situated on the Thousand Buddha Hill of Jinan suburbs.
The Xingguo Temple was built in 627 and completed in 649, [the construction has] lasted for 22 years. Covering an area of 12,500 square meters, the whole temple was designed according to the mountain, lying east and facing west. It is 220 meters long.
The Xingguo Temple is divided into east and west two institutes. The west institute has the Great Buddha's Hall, the Heaven King Hall, the Depositary of Buddhist Texts and so forth six biggest main constructions, also has the Lectorium Hall, the Rear Hall and several monk's cells for living.
In the east institute of Huyemi, the Yilan Pavilion for rest was built there, on the big stone wall near the pavilion there is a square stone table, on the stone table there are three halls built in Ming and Qing Dynasties with Buddha statues hanging inside and several Buddha Bodhisattva enshrined.
[…] In the south of the west institute there is a large piece of cliffs, this is the famous Thousand Buddha Wall, in Tang Dynasty there were 100 Buddha statues on this wall, over 60 precious Buddha statues are preserved now.
Under the cliff, there are Dragon Springs, the Happiest and Qianlou three famous Buddha caves, inside there carved many wall Buddha carvings with different dimensions.
After the Xingguo Temple was completed in Tang Dynasty, […]" -

Input by: tmciolek Aug 31 2013

"Xingguo Temple perches on Qianfo Mountain in south Jinan. When it was established during the Kaihuang reign (581-604) of the Sui Dynasty, however, it was known by another name: the Qianfo (Thousand-Buddha) Temple. Only after it was rebuilt during the Zhenguan reign (627-649) of the same dynasty was it given its present name. It was expanded during the Song Dynasty (960-1279), only to be destroyed by war in the early Ming Dynasty. Its reconstruction took place in 1468 (4th year of the Chenghua reign,  Ming Dynasty).  After  the Jiaqing reign (1796-1820) of the Qing Dynasty, new halls were added until the temple grew into an impressive affair with seven halls and four courtyards. The layout is well-disciplined, and the architecture awesome enough to hush the visitor into noiseless reverence. Access to this temple is by a stone stairway of more than 300 steps. The southern wall of the temple is elevated on the top of a cliff, into which a beehive of caves are scooped, with those at the foot of the cliff enshrined with Buddhist statues." -
Input by: tmciolek Sep 01 2013

Final data (and their sources)

Last updated: 1 Sep 2013

Lat/Long coordinates' accuracy:
The monastery in question is assumed to be situated actually no farther than 200 m from the point defined by the coordinates below.

Location of Xingguo-1 monastery, CN.

General location of the Xingguo-1 monastery, CN.
Lat 36.64097 Long 117.03015
Mapping & images: Falling Rain Genomics (, 2013.

Google Map link:,%20CN)&ll=36.64097,117.03015&spn=05.0,05.0&t=k&hl=en

Final data - explanatory notes

1. Monastery's name

2. Monastery's modern country & province

  • China: Shandong Sheng

3. Monastery's alternative/historical names

4. Monastery's lat/long coordinates

  • Approx., Lat 36.64097 Long 117.03015 - based on visual identification of the most likely site in maps and satellite imagery, - tmciolek, 31 Aug 2013.

5. Other known nearby Buddhist monasteries

6. Modern name of the known nearest city, town, or village

7. The settlement's alternative/historical names

8. The settlement's coordinates

9. Monastery's major Buddhist tradition

  • Mahayana

10. Monastery's Buddhist sub-tradition

11. Date-early

MBM chrono-tag 0600-32c - tmciolek 31 Aug 2013
0600-32c 0633-66c 0667-99c 0700-32c 0733-66c 0767-99c 0800-32c 0833-66c 0867-99c 0900-32c 0933-66c 0967-99c 1000-32c 1033-66c 1067-99c 1100-32c 1133-66c 1167-99c 1200=> dated-el

12. Date-intermediate

  • [missing data]

13. Date-late

MBM chrono-tag 1200=> - tmciolek 31 Aug 2013

14. Details of contacts with other monasteries

  • [missing data]

15. Type of evidence regarding the monastery

  • [missing data]

16. Additional notes

  • [missing data] (incl. details of the size of the monastic population)

17. Corrections & addenda to this page were kindly provided by

  • [missing data]

18. Known monks and nuns associated with this monastery

19. Available Printed Literature

  • [bibliographical details of the Book/Article 1]
  • [bibliographical details of the Book/Article 2]
  • [bibliographical details of the Book/Article 3]

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